Last Friday, ADOR released a helpful online sales tax rate database for retailers who deliver their goods and need to know the proper sales tax given their delivery destination.
In Revenue Procedure 2014-61 released on October 30, 2014, the IRS announced the increase in the amount that may be deducted from an employee’s paycheck for Medical FSA’s. The limit for years beginning in 2015 will be $2,550, which is an increase of $50 from the previous limit of $2,500. There was no change in the limit on Dependent Care FSAs, that limit remains $5,000.
Originally, IRS Notice Notice 2012-40 set the limit at $2,500 for Medical FSA’s for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2013 noting the amount may be indexed in future years for inflation.
The maximum amount remained $2,500 for 2014. 2015 will be the first year the amount has been indexed for inflation. The maximum amount that may be deducted also applies to limited purpose FSA’s.
Your contributions that are not able to be cashed out as taxable income are not counted towards the $2,550 limit however, you will want to be sure any of your contributions meet the necessary criteria so the Medical FSA remains an excepted benefit.
Amounts counted towards rollover or grace period funds do not count towards the maximum amount of $2,550. This same time last year, the IRS modified the Use-it-or-Lose-it Rule that allows certain amounts left in Medical FSAs at the end of the year could be used in the following year provided your plan includes (or is amended) to allow one of the carryover methods as follows: Plans can choose between the rollover of up to $500 of unused funds to the next plan year, or allow participants up to two and a half (2½ ) months from the end of the plan year to incur expenses against unused funds from the prior plan year.
Alabama CPAs beware. Worker classification audits by federal and state agencies like the IRS, U.S. Department of Labor, the Alabama Department of Labor and state departments of revenue and labor across the country are on the rise. The Alabama DOL and U.S. DOL just signed an exchange of information agreement to encourage these audits.
Continue reading by clicking on the link below:
In an effort to combat fraud and identity theft, the Alabama Department of Revenue has introduced a new program, “ID Theft Project”. A letter will be sent to certain taxpayers requesting the taxpayer log onto the Department’s website to take an identity confirmation quiz. If the taxpayer does not have internet access, s/he will be given a call center number.
Please click on the link below for a sample of the letter to be sent soon:
For more information, please do not hesitate to contact JamisonMoneyFarmer PC at 205-345-8440. You can also visit our website at www.jmf.com
ANY TAX ADVICE CONTAINED HEREIN WAS NOT INTENDED OR WRITTEN TO BE USED, AND IT CANNOT BE USED BY THE TAXPAYER, FOR THE PURPOSE OF AVOIDING PENALTIES THAT MAY BE IMPOSED ON THE TAXPAYER. THIS DISCLOSURE IS REQUIRED BY CIRCULAR 230 ISSUED BY THE U.S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT.
Copyright © October28, 2014 JamisonMoneyFarmer PC
If you’re a photographer, you may believe you’re providing a service to your customers and aren’t required to collect sales tax from them. You may be wrong. Here’s a snapshot of what is developing in the sales tax darkroom in Alabama.
Alabama sales tax must be collected on all gross proceeds from the retail sale of photographs, blueprints and similar items, without deduction for any part of the cost of production. This rule applies whether the photo is delivered to the customer in printed or digital form. If negatives belonging to the customer are only developed by you, the developing charge is not subject to sales tax if you charge the customer separately for this service. If photos are provided to you by the customer in order to tint or color them, the receipts for tinting or coloring are not subject to sales tax if you charge the customer separately for that service.
When you purchase supplies that become part of photographic prints or blueprints, you should purchase these sales-tax-free at wholesale. However, if you purchase materials and chemicals that are used or consumed during the development of photos or blueprints, you should purchase these at retail and pay sales tax on them. When you purchase mechanical equipment used to produce photographic negatives, prints or blueprints (including cameras), you should pay sales tax at a reduced rate known as the machine rate.
Professional photographers often charge package rates to customers to cover photography for a specific event. You may collect a deposit from your customer, followed by installment payments, or you may collect the entire fee up front. The package may cover your time, travel and other production costs and charges for prints, CDs, DVDs, or albums. What is subject to sales tax?
Use the customer’s address in your contract to determine whether the final product will be delivered to a customer in Alabama. If the contract address is outside Alabama, you are not required to collect Alabama sales tax from your customer. If you erroneously collect Alabama sales tax when the contract is set but later discover the photos will be delivered outside Alabama, you should refund the sales tax to your customer and then claim a credit for the amount refunded on your subsequent sales tax return.
A recent Alabama court case (Jaclyn L. Robinson dba Robinson Studio & Design v. State of Alabama Department of Revenue Administrative Law Division) has highlighted many of these issues. The court encouraged the Alabama Department of Revenue to notify photographers in the state of these rules and to issue regulations explaining how photographers should charge and collect sales tax.
For some investors—those with stomachs for volatility—it may be time for a closer look at cryptocurrencies.
By now, most investors have heard of bitcoin, following its phenomenal growth last year. Bitcoin, an electronic currency made by computers creating series of unique numbers through complex math problems, is sold on unregulated exchanges and accepted by a growing number of individuals and businesses because of the speed and low cost of transactions.
One bitcoin was valued at virtually nothing in the early days and now costs around $437, as of Sept. 18. Other crypto coins tend to have less value, but cryptocurrencies in general are drawing increasing interest as potential investments.
CoinDesk, an online publication that tracks digital currencies, estimates by the end of this year there will be eight million bitcoin trading accounts, known as “wallets,” and 100,000 companies that accept bitcoin.
There have been notorious security breaches, including the loss of half a billion dollars worth of bitcoin at Mt. Gox, formerly the largest bitcoin exchange, which filed for bankruptcy protection. But supporters say it’s a misunderstanding to see such cases as a weakness in cryptocurrencies. Campbell R. Harvey, a professor of finance at Duke University in Durham, N.C., says the Mt. Gox loss exposed a lack of security at the exchange itself. “Blaming bitcoin for the Mt. Gox bankruptcy is like blaming the U.S. dollar for the downfall of Lehman Brothers,” he says.
John Normand, head of foreign exchange and international rates strategy at J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. in London, called bitcoin “vastly inferior” to traditional currency in a report earlier this year. “Bitcoin is currency with high return potential but also high volatility and low liquidity,” he said in an interview, advising institutional investors to steer clear. Individuals, however, should decide for themselves, he added, whether the return prospects “justify its illiquidity and volatility,”
Here’s what potential investors should know about cryptocurrencies.
Unlike dollars or any other traditional currencies, bitcoins aren’t printed or backed by a central government. They are created by individuals and businesses using high-powered computers. Creators of bitcoin are allowed to keep some of what they create as payment for the service. The rest is sold on unregulated exchanges.
When you buy a bitcoin, what you get is two strings of numbers called a public key and a private key. For encryption and convenience purposes, the numbers are often expressed as letters and digits. The public key is the number a person must know in order to send you bitcoin. The private key is the number that only you are supposed to know. By “signing” a transaction with your private key, you authorize the movement of all or some of the bitcoin from your virtual wallet into another.
All such bitcoin movements are instantly published in a ledger so that anyone can keep track of the overall money supply. The ledger floats on some version of the Internet cloud as a collaborative document rather than a centrally managed account. Users have adopted this mechanism for shopping, transferring money and speculation.
For users, the perceived value of a cryptocurrency is perhaps best understood as the price of a tool in limited supply. Demand is fueled by parties interested in peer-to-peer forms of payment that don’t involve banks and other intermediaries, making such payments cheaper and faster.
For investors, meanwhile, a cryptocurrency becomes attractive the more popular it proves to be among users. Say bitcoin becomes the most popular way for Filipinos working in the U.S. to send money home. The increase in demand for the relatively scarce strings of numbers will drive up bitcoin’s value, analysts say.
On the other hand, if one cryptocurrency supplants another, or if peer-to-peer finance proves to be a flash in the pan, then a bitcoin will be just another meaningless string of alphanumeric code floating around on the Internet.
Some have argued the opportunity for individual investors in cryptocurrencies has passed, since large hardware is now available for large investors to purchase and mine coins on a much faster, larger scale. “It has become less of a hobby and more of a business for people requiring constant investment and careful attention to margins and costs,” says Hansel Dunlop, a London-based developer and early acquirer of bitcoin.
Other currencies have developed out of the bitcoin technology and have added improvements on that platform, explains Mr. Dunlop. The differences are nuanced, he says.
For example, Litecoin, the second-largest cryptocurrency in terms of market capitalization, offers a more complex problem to solve and is therefore more difficult to “mine,” or create. Others, like Ripple, are not minable but can be acquired at cryptocurrency exchanges.
Investors don’t have to mine coins or speculate on the exchanges to make money in cryptocurrencies. Some observers recommend investing in companies that use or service cryptocurrency and other peer-to-peer payment forms.
These include companies that process payments, including Colored Coins or Ripple Labs Inc., with open-source protocols that allow users to trade anything of value instantly online for virtually no cost. These firms are in the early stages of development and so, by and large, are not publicly traded.
James Rickards, a financier and author, says he sees potential in technologies that process faster, cheaper and more transparent exchanges that go beyond trading money. Companies using these new technologies, he says, “allow consumers to buy products or to send payments in seconds at a fraction of the cost” of regular currency.
Jeffrey Robinson, author of a critical book about bitcoin, also says investors should be looking at these kinds of companies rather than cryptocurrencies themselves. Says Mr. Robinson, “This is not a commodity buy, but it’s a technology buy.”
Chris Larsen, chief executive of Ripple Labs, says cryptocurrencies are just the start of a wider technological revolution. Mr. Larsen says he envisages the Ripple protocol being used to exchange anything of value—from currencies to airline miles—instantly at a fraction of current fees.
Despite the excitement, keep in mind the risks. Cryptocurrency can be highly volatile and illiquid, says Duke University’s Mr. Harvey. The relatively limited market capitalization of bitcoin means it may be difficult to sell in large amounts without seeing a negative impact on the price, he says. Bitcoin’s market cap recently was about $6 billion.
“Bitcoin was never meant to be a speculative investment vehicle,” he adds. “Bitcoin’s main purpose is to enable the efficient exchange of property via minimal transaction costs and a high level of security.”
By: Javier Espinoza
“At any rate, the spook spoke the truth: cryptology represents the future of privacy, and more. By implication cryptology also represents the future of money, and the future of banking and finance. (By “money” I mean the medium of exchange, the institutional mechanisms for making transactions, whether by cash, check, debit card or other electronic transfer.) Given the choice between intersecting with a monetary system that leaves a detailed electronic trail of all one’s financial activities, and a parallel system that ensures anonymity and privacy, people will opt for the latter. Moreover, they will demand the latter, because the current monetary system is being turned into the principal instrument of surveillance and control by tyrannical elements in Western governments.” – J. Orlin Grabbe
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